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    Asexual reproduction-Types and Definition

    Asexual reproduction: Types and characters

    Reproduction is the outstanding characteristics of a living organisms by which every kind of living organism multiplies to form new individuals of its own kind.

    All organism reproduce again and again in their lifetime to continue their generation. in this process, one generation of living organism produces the next generation of similar living organism.

    In Living organism Reproduction is carried out by two methods.They are:

    In this blog we are going to discuss about the Asexual reproduction, its types, character, examples and advantages.

    Asexual Reproduction

    Asexual reproduction is that type of reproduction in which fertilization does not occur. It represents the primitive form of reproduction which produces identical offspring.

    Characteristics of Asexual reproduction are:


    1
    .There is involvement of single individual.

    2.It produces new offspring genetically same to the parents.

    3.Asexual reproduction is performed by the process of mitosis, amitosis and meiosis cell division

    4.It completes in a short period

    5.It does not involve fusion of sex cells.


    Asexual reproduction is done by both plants and animals. Usually, lower animals and different types of plants reproduce through this method.

    Advantages of asexual reproduction

    • asexual reproduction does not need any particular environment as a single indivual involves in it.
    • It is a rapid and cheap method of reproduction
    • It helps to produce groups of quality organism
    • Offspring produced by this method get ready for further reproduction fast.

    Types of Asexual reproduction

    1. Fission
    2. Budding
    3. Fragmentation and regenaration
    4. Sporulation
    5. Vegetative propagation

    Fission:

    It is the simple method of division in which an organism divides into two approaxiametly equal parts.

    This type of reproduction takes place mainly in unicellular organism.

    fission in unicellular organism-educatelink.com

    Types of fission in unicellular organism:

    SNBinary fissionSNMultiple fission
    1When the individual cell is fully matured, it is divided into two during a favourable condition which is called binary fission1When several new individuals are formed from a single parent underunfavouarble condition,it is called multiple fission
    2It is very common in animals like amoeba, paramecium and plants like bacteria, diatoms2It is common in plants like chlamydomonas and animals like plasmodium
    Source: Educatelink.com

    Budding:

    It is a common asexual reproduction in which an organism forms a small outgrowth called a bud at a side.

    File:Hydra Budding.svg - Wikimedia Commons
    Budding in hydra

    The nucleus of the parents divides and one of them migrate to the bud. The bud enlarges its size and later detaches from the parent body.

    Then it grows into a new daughter organism. Budding is common in animals like hydra and plant like yeast.

    Fragmentation and Regenaration

    Fragmentation is the process in which elongated body of an organism breaks into two or more fragments due to various agencies like heat, wind, etc. It is common in spirogyra and marchantia plant.

    When these orgnism divides into two parts accidently they get regenarate into single organism, which is called regeneration. It is common in hydra and tapeworm.

    Sporulation

    Most of the non lowering plant like mucor, mushroom, bacteria produces spores inside their sporangia (in ferns and lower plants).

    The spores are small, light, unicellular reproductive structures formed by meiosis.

    Sporulation-Educatelink.com

    The spores are released by bursting out of matured sporangium. And such spores germinate into their corresponding new plants under favourable condition. Protozoans like amoeba also reproduce by sporulation.

    Vegetative propagation

    The process in which the vegetative parts of plants such as root, stem leaves take part in the formation of new plants is called vegetative propagation.

    For example, when a piece of a rose plant is sown under favourable condition it grows into new rose plant. Such vegetative propagation is very common in higher plants.

    Vegetative propagation is of two types:

    Natural vegetative propagation

    This type of vegetation does not occur in human beings but it occurs naturally. It takes place with vegetative parts like:

    • Roots

    The adventious roots of some plants become thick, swollen and tuberous due to the storage of food. They bear adventious buds. When such roots are planted new plants are produced.

    • Stem

    The stem of some plants like mint, potato, ginger are modified for vegetative propagation.When their stem with nodes are planted in soil, they develop into new plants.

    • Leaves

    The leaves of bryophyllum are thick and fleshy. Their leaves bear buds in the marginal notches.When it ‘s leaves fall and come into contact of soil, new plants are produced.

    Artificial vegetative propagation

    Artificial vegetative propagation  -Whip Grafting-Educatelink.com
    Artificial vegetative propagation -Whip Grafting

    This type of Vegetative propagation is made by human beings for their advantages. We do it in different crop plants by following methods:

    • By cutting

    In this method, the plants are propagated by cutting small pieces of stems. The stem should contain a node and an internode.

    • Layering:

    In this method,one of the lower branches of the plant is bent and covered partially with soil. The plants inside the soil develops into root.

    The stem is separated from parent plant by cutting and sown in different place. later it grows in the form of new plant.

    • Grafting

    It is a technique of joining two branches of different plants of closely related varieties .It is done before the plants bear new buds on the stems.

    Old branches should be for this purpose. One plant should have strong root system called stock and other plant whose stem is used is called scion.

    Scion and stock should be cut in different patterns. there are different patterns of cut.the cut surface of two patterns should be held together tightly by wraoing or tying.

    Then the wraped surface should be coated with soft wax.

    1. Advantages of Vegetative propagation

      The plants which does not produce viable seeds can be easily propagated by this method.

      The plants bear flowers and fruits earlier than those produced from seeds.

      It is a cheap and rapid method relative to a long period of seed dormacy

      It gives rises to genetically uniform population, the clone

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